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SOUTH POLAR VIEW JUPITER: On December 2, 1974, NASA's Pioneer 11 should return spectacular views like these of both poles of Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system.
NORTH POLE VIEW: A similar mission last year revealed that Jupiter is a spinning ball of liquid hydrogen, without any detectable solid surface. The colourful bands are great storm clouds stretched out by its rapid rotation to completely encircle the planet.
SOLAR SYSTEM AND TRAJECTORY ESTABLISHING SHOT: Pioneer 11's twenty-month trip to Jupiter takes it nearly half a billion miles out from Earth. After looping around the planet, it is targeted to continue on to Saturn, the next outer plant. However, Saturn is now rounding the opposite side of the solar system, so Pioneer 11 must loop back inward over the orbit of Jupiter to intercept Saturn late in 1979.
SATURN STOCK SCENE: If the spacecraft instruments survive this six-and-a-half-year voyage from launch to Saturn, they may return new information about the glittering ringed planet.
ASSEMBLY OF SPACECRAFT SCENE: Pioneers 10 and 11, the first missions to the outer planets, were built by TRW Systems of Redondo Beach, California.
AMES SCENES: under contract to NASA's Ames Research Centre, Mountain View, California.
LAUNCH: Pioneer 11 was launched from Cape Kennedy on April 6, 1973. by a new three-stage version of the Atlas Centaur.
TRAJECTORY OUT: It takes so much energy to reach the outer planets, that the Pioneers pass earth's moon just 11 hours after launch.
SPINNING SPACECRAFT: The spin-stabilized spacecraft are controlled by men on the ground, not be on-board automatic systems. This cuts complexity, and costs.
ASTEROID BELT: Pioneers 10 and 11 were the first to cross the asteroid belt. Previously, it had been feared to be a region of grinding boulders.... a barrier to the outer planets. In fact, very little space dust was found among the widely-spaced asteroids. No hazard at all.
SPIN SCAN ANIMATION: Pioneer 11 was twelve on-board instruments to study Jupiter, and hopefully Saturn as well. They scan the planet at many wavelengths and study the radiation and magnetic environments of these giants of the solar system.
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ENHANCED PICTURES OF JUPITER: These spectacular closeups of Jupiter were returned last year by Pioneer 10. They show detailed cloud patterns undetectable by earth-bound telescopes. ....They support the theory that Jupiter's great red spot is an ancient thunderstorm hundreds of years old.... and that the white bands are higher, rising cloud belts, while the dark belts are lower and sinking atmospheric zones. And they gave scientists their first look at a "crescent" Jupiter.
STOCK ANIMATION. JUPITER AND MOONS: Pioneer 10 also returned new facts on some Jupiter 12 moons..... four of which are large enough to qualify as small planets.
CONTROL ROOM SCENE: This year's mission, Pioneer 11 will repeat the same experiments in the vicinity of Jupiter, but its route and point of view will be completely different.
ANIMATION, TRAJECTORY AROUND JUPITER: It has been precisely aimed to enter nearly under the South Pole...... and, speeded up by Jupiter's tremendous gravity, streak up the back side, skimming within 26,000 miles of the cloudtops..... and returning over the North Pole at nearly 110,000 miles per hour---the fastest speed ever attained by a man-made object.
RADIATION ENVIRONMENT ON: Viewed in relation to the planet, this trajectory will scan a cross-section through the extremely heavy radiation belt surrounding Jupiter's magnetic equator. However, radiation exposure is like sunburn --it depends on the intensity, and the amount of time you're in it. Pioneer 11 should survive its quick trip through the radiation furnace, and come out singing new information.
MS PAN TRAJECTORY TO SATURN: Thanks to energy stolen from Jupiter's gravity, Pioneer 11 will then loop up over the plane of the ecliptic.......another spaceflight firs,t and coast across, the solar system for more than seventeen hundred earth-days. Its rendez-vous with Saturn is planned for September, 1979.
SATURN STOCK SCENES: While the trip to Saturn is much longer than the design lifetime of the Spacecraft, NASA scientists believe it has a reasonable chance of surviving the journey. If it does, we may have our first opportunity to study Saturn's heat environment, radiation belts, if any, and....... most intriguing, we might get a closeup look at Saturn's mysterious halo.
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