This mass of pipes, fittings and valves will play an important role in putting U.S.?
This mass of pipes, fittings and valves will play an important role in putting U.S. astronauts on the moon. The test set-up, devised by engineers at the Boeing Company's Wichita, Kan., facility, is the hydraulic thrust vector control system of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Saturn V moon rocket. Such a system will supply hydraulic power to start all five F-1 engines of the S-IC first-stage booster. It also will furnish in-flight hydraulic power to turn the four outboard engines which will be used to guide the rocket on its lunar flight.
To simulate the rocket power that operates the system, twelve portable pumps were connected together...supplying five gallons of fuel per second to the system.
Purpose of the program is to determine the magnitude of surge pressures in the complex system, and to analyze possible pressure drops and leakage characteristics during its operation.
Boeing-Wichita is conducting the tests under an inter-divisional assistance agreement with the company's Launch Systems Branch located at New Orleans, La.
THE SATURN V
The United States' goal of a manned lunar landing in this decade rests with the advanced Saturn V space vehicle. The Boeing Company is playing an important part in this project with its contract to build the huge S-IC first-stage rocket booster for the Saturn V.
The S-IC is the largest rocket being developed in the United States.
The advanced Saturn will permit circumlunar missions in one flight. It will provide vehicles capable of sending payloads of many tons into orbit around the earth and to the moon.
The Saturn V now is in development under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The first launching is scheduled for early 1967.
Boeing To Build S-IC
On December 15, 1961, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced Boeing would be awarded the S-IC booster contract. The Boeing Company's contracts with NASA, executed and in force, total approximately $500 million. The contracts extend into 1968 and call for development, production and test of eight flight boosters plus two test vehicles.
The Company's Launch Systems Branch is engaged in S-IC work at six sites. The S-IC will be assembled at the Michoud Operations plant in New Orleans, Louisiana. Other Boeing employees are engaged in Saturn work at the Marshall Space Flight Center; at Cape Kennedy, Florida; at Seattle, Washington; at Wichita, Kansas, and at the Mississippi Test Operations site.
S-IC Rocket Booster
The first-stage S-IC will be 138 feet (42,67 m) long and 33 feet (10,05 m) in diameter. It will have a dry weight of 287,000 pounds (130.450 kg), and a propellant capacity of 4,400,000 pounds (1.995.796 kg).
The booster will be powered by a cluster of five F-1 rocket engines under development by the Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation, Inc. Each F-1 will generate 1.5 million pounds (680.385 kg) of thrust to provide a total lift-off thrust of 7.5 million pounds (3.401.925 kg). The F-1 is in the advanced development stage with the first production engine scheduled for delivery in 1963. The F-1 has been static fired at full thrust and for the full flight duration of about two and one-half minutes.
Four F-1 engines will be mounted in a circular pattern at the bottom of the S-IC stage, and the fifth engine will be mounted in the center. The engines will burn liquid oxygen and kerosene, gimbaling for primary direction control.
The model specifications of the S-IC are being jointly developed by Marshall Center and Boeing engineers. Production will be at the 43-acre Michoud Operations plant. Static firing will be at the Mississippi Operations now under development 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Michoud.
Potential of Saturn V
The Saturn V, which will consists of three stages, will be capable of placing more than 100 tons (90.718 kg) in earth orbit and of boosting a payload of more than 40 tons (36.287 kg) to the vicinity of the moon. The rocket will weigh more than 6,000,000 pounds (2.721.540 kg) at lift-off.
The second stage (S-II) will provide 1,000,000 pounds (453.590 kg) thrust for the vehicle. The S-II is being developed by the Space and Information Systems Division of North American Aviation, Inc. It will be 81 feet 6 inches (25,28 m) long and 33 feet (10,05 m) in diameter, and will be powered by five J-2 Rocketdyne engines which have passed the static firing test phase.
Design studies for the third stage (S-IVB) are being made by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It will be about 21 and one-half feet (6,6 m) in diameter, 58 feet 8 inches (17,88 m) long and allow for 230,000 pounds (104.326 kg) of propellant for orbital operations. One J-2 engine, generating 200,000 pounds (90.718 kg) of thrust, will be used.
The entire advanced Saturn assembly of three stages plus the Apollo spacecraft is expected to stand 364 feet (110.64 m) high, or as a 28-story building.
History of Saturn
The first version of Saturn, called Saturn I, was started in late 1958. The initial booster with inert upper stages was launched on a perfect flight over the Atlantic Missile Range in October, 1961, and similarly successful launchings were made in April, 1962; November, 1962; March, 1963, and January, 1964.
The Saturn I booster develops 1.5 million pounds (680.385 kg) thrust, compared to the 7.5 million pounds (3.401.925 kg) thrust--five times as great-which will be generated by the Boeing-built S-IC for the advanced Saturn.
The Saturn I program was initiated to demonstrate the feasibility of the clustered-engine concept. Studies on this type of rocketry were begun early in 1957 by Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocket development group at Huntvsille.
The Saturn I also consists of two stages. The 10-vehicle research and development program will end in early 1965. Several of the later Saturn I vehicles will be used to test early models of the Apollo spacecraft. The three-man Apollo eventually will be boosted on earth-orbital and circumlunar missions by the Saturn V.
The Saturn I earth orbital capability is about 20,000 pounds (9071 kg). This vehicle with two live stages and Apollo payload will weigh more than 1,000,000 pounds (453.590 kg). The rocket, with Apollo spacecraft, will be 190 feet (52,12 m) high.
Saturn V Causes Problems
While the increased sized and potential of the advanced Saturn over the Saturn I is the basis of the country's hopes for manned lunar landings within a few years, these new rockets also present unique transportation problems.
The Boeing S-IC booster and the second-stage S-II will be too large for conventional highway, rail or air movement. The Boeing-built S-IC will be moved 35 miles (56 km) on barges from the NASA Michoud Operations plant to the Mississippi Test Operations for static firing. The same type of water transportation will be used for shipping the rockets to the Cape Kennedy launching site in 1965.
New Facilities Underway
At the Marshall Space flight Center in Huntsville a dynamic test stand for assembled Saturn vehicles and a captive test tower for the S-IC booster are being built.
A Saturn launch complex was completed in June, 1962, at Cape Kennedy. Construction of another launch complex was started last year, and a new 80,000-acre annex adjoining present facilities is planned for the launching of the Saturn V.
The Michoud Operations plant in New Orleans already was approximately 2,250,000 square feet (209.025 m2) of floor space for rocket production
Boeing Gears for Production
In March, 1962, when NASA signed its initial contract with Boeing, George H. Stoner, then manager of the company's Dyna-Soar program, was named manager of the Saturn Booster Branch (now Launch Systems Branch) with headquarters at the Michoud plant, and has since been named a Boeing vice president.
By mid-1964, the company had approximately 10,000 management, engineering and administrative personnel working on the project, 5,600 of them in the New Orleans area. Approximately 2,000 Boeing engineers and technicians are located at Huntsville to work in conjunction with NASA personnel on S-IC design.
Production preparations are going forward at the Michoud plant. Work is under way at Wichita, Kansas, on tool design and fabrication, with several thousands workers participating at peak periods.