Fifty years ago this month--on January 30--Adolf Hitler took a decisive step towards supreme power in Germany.
1. BERLIN, 1983 (MANNLING)
GVs, SVs AND CUs Traffic lights in the street turn into swastika montage; portraits of Hitler, Nazi memorabilia, photographs of concentration camp victims and people milling around exhibition in Kuntshalle (11 shots) 0.37
2. BERLIN, 1929 (VISLIB)
TV AND GVs Demonstrators in street; police break up demonstration (4 shots) (B & W) 0.47
3. BERLIN, 1933
GV AND SVs Brown Shirts parade before Hitler who salutes them from balcony (6 shots) (B & W) 0.57
4. BERCHTESGADEN, 1933
SVs Eva Braun and young child, allegedly Hitler's son, with Hitler in uniform on balcony (3 shots) (B & W) 1.04
5. GVs AND SVs Hitler reviewing troops in Berlin 1933 (4 shots) (B & W) 1.15
6. BERLIN, 1945
GVs Fighting and explosions in Berlin streets (5 shots) (B & W) 1.26
7. BERLIN, 1945
Bomb crater with alleged remains of Hitler and Braun (B & W) 1.35
8. VARIOUS, GERMANY, 1945
GVs AND SVs Red Army and Allied assaults in countryside and towns (15 shots) (B & W) 1.55
9. BERLIN, 1945
East German troops on parade (B & W) 2.02
10. NEAR BERLIN AND BERLIN
GVs AND SVs Red Army advancing on and fighting in Berlin; artillery fire; Germans surrendering (6 shots) (B & W) 2.17
11. RIVER ELBE, 1945
GVs AND SVs, CU Soviet and Allied soldiers meet and greet each other; four-powers delegation walks towards area where German surrender will be signed; German Field Marshal Keitel signs surrender document (7 shots) (B & W) 2.38
12. GERMANY, 1976
GV AND CU Berlin Wall stretches across German countryside; barbed wire coils ( 2 shots) (Colour) 2.44
13. VIENNA, 1955
LVs, SVs AND CUs Representatives of the four Powers-- Molotov, MacMillan, Dulles and Pinay--sign peace treaty (5 shots) (B & W) 2.56
14. BERLIN, RECENT
GV AND PAN Brandenburg Gate and Berlin Wall, with checkpoints (4 shots) (Colour) 3.06
15. WEST GERMANY, RECENT
GVs AND SVs NATO tanks on exercises (2 shots) 3.16
16. BELSEN, EARLY 1940s
GVs, SVs AND CUs Concentration camp inmate sit on the ground among his dead comrades; bodies lie strewn over camp yard (4 shots) (B & W) (mute) 3.31
17. NUREMBURG, 1945
EXTERIOR Of courthouse with U.S. soldiers on guard; Goering, Hess and Ribbentrop in dock; court officials; telephone operators; journalists at work (6 shots) (B & W) (Mute) 3.44
18. JERUSALEM, 1962
SVs Judges look from podium at Adolf Eichmann, in glass enclosure (2 shots) (B & W ) (Mute) 3.54
19. RENDSBURG, 1964
GV PAN TO CU, GVs Former members of Waffen-SS meet for reunion; CU inscription on plaque; they march through street (3 shots) (B & W) 4.04
20. PARIS, 1980
NIGHTSHOTS GVs AND SVs Police sifting through rubble after bomb blast outside synagogue (3 shots) 4.12
21. BERLIN, 1980
GVs Cinema billboard for film on Hitler's life; with people outside cinema; books about Hitler on display (3 shots) 4.25
22. ITALY, 1980
CU ZOOM OUT TO SVs Clock-face at Bologna body pulled from wreckage after bomb blast there (2 shots) 4.39
23. NUREMBURG, 1983
GVs AND SVs Defaced gravestones at St. Pieter's cemetery; anti-Jewish slogans and swastikas daubed on gravestones (4 shots) 4.57
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Background: VARIOUS LOCATIONS
Fifty years ago this month--on January 30--Adolf Hitler took a decisive step towards supreme power in Germany. He became Chancellor--a post he held for more than a decade until his death in April, 1945. Controversy surrounds plans to commemorate the anniversary which, for millions, signalled an era of dictatorship, brutality and death.
SYNOPSIS: Chilling reminders of the past are currently on display in sombre exhibitions in Berlin. One exhibition, "1933--the Way to Dictatorship", is the centre of controversy. It emphasises capitalist co-operation with Hitler and the Communist opposition, juxtaposing gruesome pictures of tortured concentration camp victims with those of slave labour used by AEG and Siemens, still Berlin's biggest employers. Nazi memorabilia and the possessions of murdered Jews are also on display.
Hitler's bid for power began in 1923--and a failed uprising in Munich. Ten years later, the chancellorship was his. He proudly reviewed his Brown Shirt troops--and brutally eliminated them in 1934 after a revolt. With Hindenburg's death, Hitler became Fuhrer. His regime was to brutalise much of Europe. At his Bavarian retreat, Berchtesgaden, he planned his strategies with top advisers and friends--like his mistress, Eva Braun.
After five years of war, the Nazis had been beated. Soviet troops laid siege to Berlin. Hitler spent his last hours in his Chancellory celler with Eva Brown and close sides. They committed suicide--charred remains, believed to be theirs, were found in a nearby bomb crater.
A shattered Germany had no time to recover before it was divided by the Berlin Agreement, into U.S., Soviet, British and French occupation zones. Berlin was similarly divided. After negotiations to form a unified German administration failed, the three Western-occupied zones were integrated. In 1989 the Federal Republic of Germany was declared in the West--a month later, the Soviet-occupied East declared itself the Democratic Republic.
The Thousand-Year Reich had crumbled. In 1945, the Red Army, marching towards Germany, met U.S. Allied forces at the River Elbe. Nazi Germany had been encircled. Field Marshal Keitel signed the unconditional surrender and on May 8, 1945, the war was over.
New phrase--coined by Winston Churchill--was added to the language. The on Curtain. It symbolised the division between West and East. After the carve-up of countries at the war's end, Austria fell to the east of the Curtain. A peace treaty signed in 1955 between the four powers made Austria independent and politically neutral. By 1961 the East-West division became more tangible. Under Soviet guidance, East Germany built the Berlin Wall--symbolically and physically dividing the two Germanys. The East-West military groupings show the division clearly--in the Warsaw Pact and North Atlantic Treaty Organisation alliances.
The enduring image of the was will be the suffering on the faces of millions who died in concentration camps. The horror of the holocaust had been revealed--and those held accountable were brought to justice at the Nuremburg war crimes trials. Eighteen top Nazis were found guilty--eleven were sentenced to hanging--seven received long prison terms. Hermann Goering killed himself before his scheduled execution. In 1962, Adolf Eichmann was executed in Jerusalem. Israeli agents had captured him in Argentina.
A decade later, former Waffen-SS officers were celebrating a happy reunion. The sight brought back grim reminders of the brutal days of the Nazis--militarism, repression and nationalism.
A campaign of violence by neo-fascist and right-wing groups in western Europe escalated in the 1970s. In Paris, a bomb exploded outside a synagogue--350 people were inside. It was the same synagogue attacked by the Nazis in 1944. The resurgence of interest in Hitler and Nazism is fed by countless films and books. Like political factions, they either vilify or glorify the Third Reich. Italy, with its heritage from the fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini,has a long history of ultra-Right activities. One of the worst neo-fascist attacks was at the Bologna railway station in 1980--83 people died in the bomb blast.
Anti-semitic and nationalist attacks continue. In Nuremburg recently, more than 50 graves in a Christian cemetery were vandalised--daubed with swastikas and anti-Jewish slogans. These attacks--ranging from graffiti to bomb blasts-show the spirit of fascism and Nazism is far from dead.
Source: HANS-ULRICH MANNLING/REUTERS LIBRARY/ARD