One of the major barriers in the path of Indonesia's development is the problem of transport and communication.
GVs: street scenes of Djakarta (4 shots)
SVs: people in street market and shanty town.
CU: drill breaking rock and machines carving road through outback. (3 shots)
SV: children wave to camera and SVs people in new homes on transmigration settlement.
SV: teacher at blackboard and people in classroom listening to lecture.
CU: Implement digging ground and people in field hoeing. (2 shots)
GV PAN: new Sumatra settlement and people in fields and outside houses. (4 shots)
SV: men haul grain sacks to weighing machine.
SV: bulldozers and earthmovers at work on new road.
GV AND SVs: small settlement through which new road passes. (5 shots)
SV: Australian highway engineers at work on roadmaking. (3 shots)
GV PAN: river
GV: longhouse and INTERIOR Dayak woman at work.
SV: Dayak men at work on the land as roadwork truck goes by along new road. (3 shots)
Script is copyright Reuters Limited. All rights reserved
Background: One of the major barriers in the path of Indonesia's development is the problem of transport and communication. This nation of a thousand islands still relies heavily on small boats to provide its links. Even on the big islands of Java, Sumatra and Borneo, there are relatively few roads, extending a few miles around the larger towns. But now a joint undertaking by Australia and Indonesia is opening up new territories and driving new roads through virgin country. This is not only helping to solve the communications problem, but is enabling Indonesia to deal with its most pressing dilemma, to disperse some of the millions of people who have crowded into the capital, Jakarta, in recent years.
SYNOPSIS: In terms of population, Indonesia is the fifth largest nation in the world with 119 million people - and five million of them live in Jakarta. The poor living conditions in the city are typical of those throughout the nation, for Indonesia's economy struggles to support its people.
New projects, aimed at opening up mineral wealth and providing settlements for people, are therefore welcome. The government's transmigration programme is making some headway. This resettlement camp north of Jakarta is the first stage of a population shift. Former city dwellers are introduced to the elements of an agricultural life. Lessons are given on raising crops, irrigation and the problems of life in the outback so that resettled families will be able to fend for themselves.
All this is part of a five-year plan to move one thousand families a year out of Jakarta and give them practical instruction in making a living from the land ...and an improvement on the slums of Jakarta.
This is one of the new settlements. It has been established on the island of Sumatra and it houses some two to 300 families from Jakarta. The government provides them with tools, seed, some livestock and food for one or two years - depending on how difficult it might be to begin successful farming. After the first harvest, the new migrants are expected to live without further assistance. At this camp, they now live by selling the rice crop.
Part of the new Australian-Indonesian joint project for road building is taking place on Borneo. This 40-million-dollar project will open up the vast hinterland of Borneo - the world's third largest island. So far, some 80 kilometres of road have linked some small townships but within five years, new roads are planned to exploit Indonesia's potential in rubber, copra, coffee and pepper production. At present, there are 38 Australian engineers supervising an Indonesian workforce of 1,250 and Australia is also supplying the machinery.
But part of the aim is to train Indonesians in the essential science of road engineering.
The roads are beginning to replace the rivers as Borneo's highways. And as the road programme pushed ahead, it is overtaking more history. The Dayaks of Borneo were once feared as headhunters. Now, they live off the land. But technology has caught up with them and their ancient customs.
For example, the dayak method of tilling the ground has destroyed the jungle. In order to preserve it, the Indonesian government is persuading the Dayal??? to turn to more modern methods and to form permanent settlements instead of living a nomadic life. Ironically, their lives have been changed by other nomads - the road-builders, pioneers of Indonesia's new future.