• Short Summary

    AS THE WORLD ANXIOUSLY, FEARFULLY AWAITS OUTCOME OF THE NEXT MOVE IN THE EAST-WEST SQUABBLE OVER BERLIN - A DIVIDED CITY IN A DIVIDED COUNTRY - VISNEWS PRESENTS THIS REVIEW OF EVENTS THAT LED UP TO THE PRESENT CRISIS...

  • Description

    AS THE WORLD ANXIOUSLY, FEARFULLY AWAITS OUTCOME OF THE NEXT MOVE IN THE EAST-WEST SQUABBLE OVER BERLIN - A DIVIDED CITY IN A DIVIDED COUNTRY - VISNEWS PRESENTS THIS REVIEW OF EVENTS THAT LED UP TO THE PRESENT CRISIS...

    HISTORIC FILM OF BERLIN, TAKEN AS THE CITY FELL TO SOVIET TROOPS MAY 2, 1945, AND BEFORE THE GERMAN SURRENDER SIX DAYS LATER, SHOWS THE TERRIBLE EFFECTS OF ALLIED AIR BOMBARDMENT ON THE CITY WHERE HITLER HAD HIS HEADQUARTERS UNTIL HIS INGLORIOUS SUICIDE. BIG AREAS OF THE CITY WERE NO MORE THAN A MASS OF RUINED, SMOULDERING BUILDINGS. BUILDINGS, ON WHICH ALLIED BOMB ??? BROUGHT GRIM VENGEANCE. THESE WERE THE DYING HOURS OF THE NAZI REGIME'S FOURTH REICH AS JUBILANT RUSSIAN TROOPS SWEPT INTO THE BATTERED CITY AND WINKLED OUT THE LAST REMAINING POCKETS OF GERMAN RESISTANCE. BERLIN CIVILIANS, LONG ACCUSTOMED TO STOLID OBEYANCE OF NAZI MILITARY DEGREES, NOW RECEIVED A NEW SET OF PROCLAMATIONS - THIS TIME FROM THE RUSSIANS...

    GERMANY'S FINAL DEFEAT WAS OFFICIALLY ACKNOWLEDGED AT A CEREMONY MAY 8, 1945, AT RHEIMS, FRANCE. UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER DOCUMENTS WERE RATIFIED AT A CEREMONY IN BERLIN. HERE, GERMANY WAS REPRESENTED BY FIELD MARSHAL KEITED AND ADMIRAL VON FREIDEBERG, AND THE ALLIES BY AIR MARSHAL TEDDER, OF BRITAIN, AND RUSSIA'S MARSHAL ZHUKOV. AFTER THE SIGNING, THE BRITISH AIR MARSHAL AND THE RUSSIAN MARSHAL SHOOK HANDS - THE ALLIES TOGETHER HAD WON THE WAR; THE LUFTWAFFE - ITS PLANES GROUNDED - NO LONGER RAINED DEATH FROM THE SKIES, AND THE GERMAN TROOPS WERE NOW DEFEATED AND DISARMED.

    ONE MONTH LATER, THE VICTORIOUS COMMANDERS MET IN BERLIN TO SETTLE THE BOUNDARIES OF ALLIED OCCUPATION. THE BIG THREE LEADERS HAD DECIDED AT THE YALTA CONFERENCE IN 1944 THAT GERMANY AND BERLIN COULD BE DIVIDED INTO SEPARATE ZONES TO BE OCCUPIED AND ADMINISTERED THE ALLIED POWERS UNTIL A PEACE TREATY WAS SIGNED. BERLIN ITSELF COULD BE IN THE RUSSIAN ZONE BUT WOULD BE JOINTLY OCCUPIED BY THE ALLIES, EACH OF WHOM WOULD HAVE ONE SECTOR OF THE CITY. BERLIN, IT WAS AGREED, WAS TO BE A UNITY HAVING ITS OWN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. A JOINT ALLIED CONTROL COMMISSION WAS SET UP, AND AT A CEREMONY IN BERLIN MARSHALL ZHUKOV SIGNED THE INAUGURATION DOCUMENTS OF THE COMMISSION ON BEHALF OF RUSSIA; FIELD MARSHAL MONTGOMERY SIGNED FOR BRITAIN; GENERAL EISENHOWER FOR THE UNITED STATES, AND GENERAL LATTRE DE TASSIGNY FOR FRANCE.

    BERLIN, ONCE HITLER'S PROUD CAPITAL, NOW BECAME FOUR SEPARATE SECTORS, A SHATTERED CITY QUARTERED TO EACH ALLIED NATIONS. UNDER THE ALLIED AGREEMENT ALL TRAFFIC - AIR, ROAD AND RAIL - WAS TO BE FREE FROM BORDER SEARCH OR CONTROL BY CUSTOMS OR MILITARY AUTHORITIES.

    THIS MAP SHOWS THE FOUR SECTORS OF BERLIN. WEST BERLIN OF THE PRESENT DAY - THAT IS THE AMERICAN, BRITISH AND FRENCH SECTORS - HAS A POPULATION OF JUST OVER TWO MILLION. IN EAST BERLIN - THAT IS THE SOVIET ZONE - LIVE THE REMAINING ONE MILLION BERLINERS.

    A FEW WEEKS AFTER THE ARM STICE, DEVASTATED BERLIN BECAME A CITY OF HUNGER. IN JULY, 1945, THE BERLIN ZONE COMMANDERS MET TO DRAFT AN EMERGENCY PLAN TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR THE CITY AND HELP RESTORE IT TO NORMAL LIFE. AT THE CONFERENCE WERE U.S. ZONE CHIEF MAJOR GENERAL F.L. PARKE; COLONEL-GENERAL A. GORBALOV (RUSSIA); MAJOR-GENERAL L. LYNE (BRITAIN) AND BRIG.-GENERAL G. DE BEAUCHENES (FRANCE).

    BERLIN SLOWLY EMERGED FROM THE RUINS AND CHAOS OF WAR. RUBBLE WAS CLEARED; COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION LINKS RESTORED. WITH GRIM DETERMINATION, BERLINERS STARTED BACK ON THE ROAD TO RECOVERY ...

    JULY, 1945 SAW THE HISTORIC POTSDAM MEETING OF THE BIG THREE - U.S. PRESIDENT HARRY S.TRUMAN, BRITISH PRIME MINISTER WINSTON CHURCHILL AND RUSSIA'S JOSEPH STALIN. THE THREE LEADERS FORMULATED AND SIGNED THE POTSDAM AGREEMENT, CONTAINING THE PROVISION THAT ALL OF GERMANY WAS TO BE REGARDED AS AN ECONOMIC UNIT FOR THE DURATION OF THE OCCUPATION. THE CONFERENCE ALSO CONFIRMED THAT BERLIN WAS TO BE A UNITY UNDER ITS OWN MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE ALLIED ZONE COMMISSIONS.

    THE JOINT ALLIED COMMAND IN BERLIN WORKED REASONABLY WELL IN THE FIRST FLUSH OF VICTORY. BUT FRICTION BEGAN WHEN THE WEST ACCUSED THE RUSSIANS OF TURNING EAST GERMANY INTO A PUPPET STATE, AND SUPPRESSING DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL ACTIVITY IN THEIR SECTOR OF BERLIN. THE RUSSIANS GAVE STARK EMPHASIS TO THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN EAST AND WEST BERLIN BY ERECTING BARRIERS AND DIGGING TRENCHES ON THEIR SIDE OF THE DIVIDING CITY LINE.

    MEANWHILE, BERLIN LIKE THE REST OF WAR-RAVAGED GERMANY - AND MOST OF EUROPE - WAS FACED WITH A GROWING FOOD SHORTAGE DURING THE FIRST GRIM WINTER AFTER THE WAR. RATIONS WERE CUT TO A LEVEL BELOW THOSE OF THE WORST WARTIME PERIOD, AND MANY BERLINERS WERE FORCED TO GROW THEIR OWN FOOD ON RUBBLE-CLEARED ALLOTMENTS. HAD NOT THE UNITED STATES SENT 200 MILLION DOLLARS' WORTH OF FOOD, AND BRITAIN TWICE AS MUCH, MANY THOUSANDS OF GERMANS WOULD CERTAINLY HAVE DIED OF STARVATION IN THAT HARSH WINTER OF 1946.

    THE FIRST MAJOR EAST-WEST SPLIT OVER BERLIN CAME JUNE, 1948, NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ADVISORS OF THE FOUR OCCUPATION POWERS ON CURRENCY REFORM FOR BERLIN ENDED IN DEADLOCK. THEN THE WEST ACCUSED RUSSIA OF SUBJECTING ROAD, RAIL AND WATER LINKS BETWEEN BERLIN AND THE WESTERN ZONES OF GERMANY TO INTIMIDATION - HOLD-UPS, RIGOROUS PERMIT CHECKS AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS. THE WESTERN POWERS MADE SHARP PROTESTS TO THE SOVIET UNION, POINTING OUT THAT RUSSIA HAD SPECIFICALLY GUARANTEED FREE AND UNIMPEDED ACCESS TO BERLIN. THEN CAME THE SOVIET SHOCK. ON JUNE 17, THE RUSSIANS WALKED OUT OF THE KOMMANDATURA, THE JOINT MILITARY CONTROL ORGANIZATION - AND CLAMPED DOWN ON ALL SUPPLY ROUTES THROUGH EASTERN GERMANY 10 WEST BERLIN. THE LAST LIFE-LINE FROM BERLIN TO WESTERN GERMANY, ACROSS SOVIET-HELD TERRITORY, THE BERLIN-HELMSTEDT RAILWAY, WAS CLOSED JUNE 24. THUS BEGAN THE BERLIN BLOCKADE, WHICH LASTED MORE THAN 10 MONTHS. ONLY THE AIR REMAINED OPEN, FOR THIS DID NOT DEPEND ON AGREEMENTS BE SEEN THE WEST AND RUSSIA. WITHIN A WEEK OR SO THE MONUMENTAL BERLIN AIRLIFT THE GREAT THREE-LANE 'AIRBRIDGE', WAS UNDER WAY. FREIGHT PLANES OF THE BRITISH, U.S. AND FRENCH AIR FORCES MADE ROUND-THE-CLOCK FLIGHTS SEVEN DAYS A WEEK, BRINGING FOOD AND FUEL TO THE CUT-OFF CITY. WEST BERLINERS, SUBJECTED TO ACUTE SHORTAGES OF FOOD AND FUEL, GAVE WENT TO THEIR DISCOMFORT AT ANTI-COMMUNIST RALLIES.

    FINAL DIVISION OF BERLIN CAME SEPTEMBER, 1948. THE CITY'S MUNICIPAL COUNCIL, FREELY ELECTED ON A DEMOCRATIC BASIS IN 1946, REFUSED TO CONTINUE TO MEET IN EAST BERLIN BECAUSE OF WHAT IT DESCRIBED AS PRESSURE EXERTED BY THE EAST GERMAN REGIME. THE COUNCIL CARRIED ON DUTIES IN WEST BERLIN, WHILE THE EAST GERMAN REGIME ESTABLISHED A SEPARATE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL TO ADMINISTER THE SOVIET SECTOR OF BERLIN. THE FOLLOWING MONTH, THE COUNCIL IN WEST BERLIN PASSED A RESOLUTION CALLING FOR MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS BY SECRET BALLOT FOR COUNCIL SEATS THROUGHOUT BATH THE WEST AND SOVIET SECTORS OF BERLIN. THESE MOVES SPARKED A BIG COMMUNIST DEMONSTRATION IN BERLIN, DURING WHICH CLASHES FLARED BETWEEN DEMONSTRATORS AND WEST GERMAN POLICE. LATER, RIOTS INSPIRED BY SUPPORTERS OF BOTH COUNCILS BROKE OUT IN THE CITY. AT A MASS DEMONSTRATION OUTSIDE THE BRANDENBURG GATE CROWDS ACCLAIMED A YOUTH WHO SCALED THE MONUMENT AND TORE DOWN THE COMMUNIST FLAG.

    ON BERLIN'S DOMESTIC FRONT LIFE STRUGGLED ON DESPITE SHORTAGES CAUSED BY THE BLOCKADE. FILM SHOT ON THE 100TH DAY OF THE CLOSURE SHOWS PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND FACTORIES IDLE BECAUSE OF DWINDLING POWER FUEL STOCKS. BERLINERS HAD TO GET BY ON RATIONED GAS AND ELECTRICITY; SOME FAMILIES GENERATES THEIR OWN POWER WITH HOME-MADE BICYCLE GENERATORS; HOUSEWIVES QUEUED DAILY FOR SCANT FOOD RATIONS. MANY OLD FOLK DIED - BUT THE HAND OF HUNGER TOSSED BERLIN PRIDE HIGHER THAN EVER. MEANWHILE, THE AIRLIFT WENT ON, BRINGING IN VITAL SUPPLIES TO KEEP THE CITY ALIVE.

    TROUBLE ERUPTED AGAIN IN BERLIN, DECEMBER, 1948, WHEN CAMPAIGNING BEGAN FOR THE CITY'S MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. BERLIN AT THIS STAGE HAD TWO MAYORS - ERNST REUTER, ELECTED BY THE COUNCIL THAT SWITCHED PERMANENTLY INTO WEST BERLIN, AND FRITZ EBERT, RECOGNIZED AS MAYOR IN THE SOVIET SECTOR. BEFORE THE ELECTION, THE SOVIET SECTOR COMMANDANT DECLARED THAT THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL INSTALLED IN EAST BERLIN WAS THE SOLE LEGITIMATE ADMINISTRATIVE BODY OF THE MUNICIPALITY. AS A RESULT, NO ELECTION WAS HELD IN THE EASTERN SECTOR, BUT A POLL DID TAKE PLACE IN WEST BERLIN.

    MEANWHILE, COMMANDANTS OF THE WESTERN ALLIES' SECTORS MET IN BERLIN'S POTSDAMMER PLATZ TO RESUME JOINT ADMINISTRATION OF THEIR ZONES - WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF THE SOVIET REPRESENTATIVE (FRAMED PICTURE OF WHOM FILMED IN CLOSE-UP DURING MEETING) WHO DID NOT ATTEND. AT THE SAME TIME, HOPES FOR LIFTING OF THE BLOCKADE ROSE WITH THE ANNOUNCEMENT THAT BERLIN 'CORRIDOR' TALKS WERE BEING ARRANGED IN NEW YORK BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND SOVIET DELEGATES TO U.N.

    CAME MARCH, 1949, AND IN A BID TO END EXTENSIVE BLACK MARKET, SOVIET MARKS WERE DECLARED NO LONGER LEGAL TENDER IN BERLIN'S WESTERN SECTORS. BERLINERS HAD TO EXCHANGE THEIR OLD BANK NOTES FOR THE NEW OFFICIAL CURRENCY.

    TWO MONTHS LATER - IN MAY - FOUR-POWER NEGOTIATIONS IN NEW YORK FIXED TERMS FOR LIFTING THE BERLIN BLOCKADE, AND THE STRANGLEWOOD ON BERLIN'S LIFE-LINE WAS EASED - AFTER 318 DAYS. A JOINT COMMUNIQUE BY THE FOUR POWERS' U.N. DELEGATES ANNOUNCED ENDING OF ALL CURTAILMENT OF TRAFFIC, TRANSPORT AND COMMERCIAL LINKS BETWEEN WEST BERLIN AND THE WESTERN ZONES OF GERMANY.

    BERLIN HEAVED A SIGH OF RELIEF - AND SPRANG BACK TO NORMAL LIFE. BERLIN-BOUND TRAINS LOADED WITH SUPPLIES POLLED ACROSS THE EAST GERMANY FRONTIER FOR THE FIRST TIME IN OVER 10 MONTHS AS THE BAN WAS LIFTED AT MIDNIGHT MAY 12. GENERAL LUCIUS CLAY, U.S. MILITARY GOVERNOR IN GERMANY, DETAILED LIFTING OF THE BLOCKADE TO BERLINERS DURING AN ADDRESS AT WEST BERLIN'S CITY HALL. THE AIRLIFT DID NOT END THAT DAY. IT WAS PROGRESSIVELY REDUCED IN SCALE OVER THE NEXT FEW MONTHS. WITH FULL ELECTRIC POWER RESTORED, TRAM TRACKS WERE PUT IN ORDER AND CIVILIANS BEGAN AGAIN TO CLEAR UP THEIR WAR-SHATTERED CITY. JUBILANT WEST BERLINERS MASSED AT THE CITY HALL TO CELEBRATE ENDING OF THE BLOCKADE AND TO HEAR A SPEECH BY WEST GERMAN CHANCELLOR ADENAUER.

    FOR BERLIN FAMILIES END OF THE BAN MEANT FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES - AND FOOD IN PLENTY FOR YOUNGSTERS.

    ACROSS THE BORDER SECTOR IN EAST BERLIN. DATE: OCTOBER, 1949 - AND BIG CROWDS ACCLAIM WILHELM PIEZY, ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE EAST GERMANY AT A CEREMONY IN GOERING'S FORMER AIR MINISTRY BUILDING. EAST BERLINERS PARADED THE STREETS WITH BANNERS AND CARICATURES OF CHANCELLOR ADENAUER - AND WEST GERMAN PRESIDENT THEODOR HEUSS.

    OVER TO WEST BERLIN A MONTH LATER AND PRESIDENT HEUSS GETS A ROUSING WELCOME ON A TWO-DAY OFFICIAL VISIT TO THE WESTERN SECTORS. A BIG THRONG PACKED THE SQUARE OUTSIDE THE CITY HALL TO HEAR HEUSS SPEAK.

    CAME JULY, 1950, AND THE OPENING OF A NEW POWER STATION IN WEST BERLIN TO RESTORE ELECTRICITY CUT OFF BY EAST BERLIN AUTHORITIES. THEN CAME A WATER SHORTAGE - CAUSED BY EAST BERLIN DENYING WATER TO A SUBURB IT SUPPLIED IN THE WESTERN SECTOR. CIVILIANS WERE FORCED TO DRAW DAILY WATER SUPPLIES FROM STREET FIRE HYDRANTS AND STORE WATER IN BATHS AND BUCKETS.

    BATTLE-SCARED BRANDENBURG GATE, DIVIDING THE EAST-SECTORS OF BERLIN, WAS THE NEXT TROUBLE SPOT. EAST GERMAN CIVILIANS IN THE SOVIET ZONE SCALED THE MONUMENT AND TORE DOWN THE BRONZE QUADRIGA -FAMOUS SYMBOL OF FOUR-POWER ADMINISTRATION IN BERLIN. IN ITS PLACE WERE PLANTED COMMUNIST FLAGS.

    YET ANOTHER BERLIN INCIDENT. IN OCTOBER, 1950, SOVIET TROOPS EDGED THEIR FRONTIER POSTS 200 YARDS INTO THE BRITISH SECTOR OF BERLIN. BUT BRITISH TROOPS IGNORED THE INFRINGEMENT AND POSTED SENTRIES AT POINTS ON THE ORIGINAL DEMARCATION LINE. CAMERAMEN SHOT THE FRONTIER INCIDENT WITH TELEPHOTO LENSES UNDER COVER OF SHRUBS IN THE WESTERN SECTOR.

    NOW TO BONN AND JULY, 1952. THE ALLIES - U.S.A., BRITAIN AND FR FRANCE - AND OTHER NATIONS SIGN AN AGREEMENT WITH WEST GERMANY, OFFICIALLY ENDING THE STATE OF WAR AND RECOGNIZING WEST GERMANY AS AN INDEPENDENT NATION. THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT FOLLOWED SUIT IN 1955.

    AS EARLY AS 1945, EASY GERMANS, RESENTING DIVISION OF THEIR CITY AND PREFERRING LIFE IN THE WEST, BEGAN TO FLEE EAST BERLIN, SOMETIMES IN TRICKLES, SOMETIMES - DURING THE MANY CRISES - IN A MASS EXODUS, CAUSING A SEVERE LABOUR SHORTAGE IN EAST BERLIN. NO I DEFECTION ROUTE WAS THROUGH BERLIN. LAND-MINED STRIPS, BARBED-WIRE BARRIER AND MACHINE-GUN-EQUIPPED WATCHTOWERS, WHICH HELPED SEAL THE BORDER ELSEWHERE, COULD NOT BE USED IN BERLIN BECAUSE FOUR-POWER REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE CITY REQUIRED SECTORAL BORDERS TO REMAIN OPEN. THIS WAS A CHIEF REASON FOR THE EAST GERMAN CLAMP DOWN (AUGUST, 1961) ON ALL EAST GERMANS VISITING THE WESTERN SECTOR, GIVING RISE TO THE PRESENT CRISIS. ON ARRIVAL IN WEST BERLIN THE REFUGEES STAYED IN CAMPS FOR A FEW DAYS' ROUTINE PROCESSING, THEN WERE OFFERED JOBS IN LABOUR-SHORT WEST BERLIN INDUSTRIES. FROM 1945 TO 1961 ABOUT FOUR MILLION EAST GERMANS - ALMOST ONE-FOURTH OF EAST GERMANY'S PRESENT POPULATION - SOUGHT ASYLUM IN THE WEST.

    ON JUNE 17, 1953, A GENERAL STRIKE PARALYSED EAST BERLIN MASS DEMONSTRATIONS BY HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF EAST BERLINERS IN PROTEST AGAINST A GOVERNMENT ORDER TO BOOST WORK QUOTAS FLARED INTO WIDESPREAD RIOTS. SOVIET TANKS AND TROOPS WERE CALLED IN TO CRUSH THE TROUBLE. THE UPRISING ENDED IN SWIFT REPRESSION.

    IN A BID TO REACH A SETTLEMENT ON GERMAN REUNIFICATION AND SOLVE THE BERLIN PROBLEM, THE FOUR POWERS MET IN BERLIN IN 1954. THE CONFERENCE TOOK PLACE ALTERNATIVELY AT THE ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL IN WEST BERLIN AND TIN THE SOVIET EMBASSY, EAST BERLIN, FROM JAN 25 TO FEB 18.

    BUT GERMAN REUNIFICATION WAS NOT ACHIEVED BECAUSE OF BASIC DIFFERENCES OF OPINION BY THE UNITED STATES, BRITAIN AND FRANCE ON ONE HAND, AND RUSSIA ON THE OTHER.

    EAST BERLINERS MASSED MAY, 1955 FOR A BIG CELEBRATION MARKING THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF GERMANY'S SURRENDER. HERR ULBRICHT, EAST GERMAN LEADER, ADDRESSED THE RALLY, WHICH SERVED AS A REMINDER THAT RUSSIA HAS YET TO FORMALLY SIGN A PEACE TREATY WITH EAST GERMANY - A MOVE SOVIET PREMIER KHRUSHCHEV HAS THREATENED, AND WHICH HE SAYS WILL GIVE EAST GERMANY THE RIGHT TO CUT OFF WESTERN ACCESS THROUGH EAST GERMANY TO WEST BERLIN.

    LATER THAT MONTH 4,000 EAST GERMAN COMMUNISTS DEMONSTRATED IN THE WESTERN SECTOR OF BERLIN AND CLASHED WITH WEST GERMAN POLICE IN UGLY SCENES. POLICE BATON CHARGES AND HIGH-PRESSURE HOSES FINALLY FORCED THE DEMONSTRATORS BACK INTO THEIR OWN SECTOR.

    BY SEPTEMBER, 1955, THE BERLIN PROBLEM STILL REMAINED UNSOLVED. MEANWHILE, WEST GERMAN CHANCELLOR ADENAUER FLEW TO MOSCOW FOR TALKS WITH SOVIET LEADERS ON SOVIET-WEST GERMAN RELATIONS AND TO SEEK REPATRIATION OF MANY GERMANS PRISONERS OF WAR, STILL HELD CAPTIVE BY THE RUSSIANS. THE CONFERENCE RESULTED IN ESTABLISHMENT OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO COUNTRIES. MARSHALL BULGANIN, THEN SOVIET PREMIER, GAVE AN UNDERTAKING THAT RUSSIA WOULD RETURN TO GERMANY NEARLY 10,000 PRISONERS, WHO, HE CLAIMED, HAD COMMITTED WAR CRIMES ON SOVIET TERRITORY DURING WORLD WAR II. PRESENT AT THE TALKS: NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV, THE FIRST SECRETARY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY, LATER SOVIET PRIME MINISTER. FLYING BACK TO GERMANY, CHANCELLOR ADENAUER ANNOUNCED DETAILS OF THE NEGOTIATIONS TO BIG CROWDS AWAITING TO GREET HIM AT COLOGNE AIRPORT.

  • Tags

  • Data

    Film ID:
    VLVAAMIFFTDWR8YIGRNSUJ9ZEX1MU
    Media URN:
    VLVAAMIFFTDWR8YIGRNSUJ9ZEX1MU
    Group:
    Reuters - Source to be Verified
    Archive:
    Reuters
    Issue Date:
    22/08/1961
    Sound:
    Unknown
    HD Format:
    Available on request
    Stock:
    Black & White
    Duration:
    00:31:39:00
    Time in/Out:
    /
    Canister:
    N/A

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