The 40th anniversary of Warsaw's bloody uprising against its Nazi occupiers was commemorated on July 31 and August 1 by national tributes and religious services heavily tinged with political overtones.
1944 - FILE (MUTE)
GV Destruction of Warsaw ghetto, smoke rising, exploding buildings, corpses of victims, civilians fighting fires. (7 SHOTS)
AUGUST 1, 1984 (ARD)
GVs General Jaruzelski places foundation stone at monument. (2 SHOTS)
GVs Cathedral interior, service in progress, Solidarity amrbands, congregation holding hands upraised with "V" sign. (5 SHOTS)
GVs Service continues in street with thousands outside church raising arms with "V" sign. (2 SHOTS)
JULY 31 (ARD) (MUTE)
GVs Night-time service, wreath laid by Solidarity supporters, wreath placed at tomb. (3 SHOTS)
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Background: The 40th anniversary of Warsaw's bloody uprising against its Nazi occupiers was commemorated on July 31 and August 1 by national tributes and religious services heavily tinged with political overtones. The land and airborne attacks which the Nazis poured on to the city - where the entire population of several hundred thousand Jews and many thousands of other Poles lost their lives - left unimaginable death and destruction everywhere. Virtually no building was left intact by the Germans' savage assaults. Poland's current leader, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, observed the 40th anniversary by cementing a stone at Warsaw's monument to its fallen. In the capital's St. John's Cathedral, mass was celebrated by Bishop Jerzy Dabrowski and the Polish primate, Cardinal Josef Glemp. The congregants added a poignant political element by wearing red armbands - a symbol of the officially banned trade union Solidarity - and by raising their hands in a "V for Victory" salute. Outside the church, an overflow crowd of several thousand Solidarity supporters joined in singing religious and patriotic songs, laying memorial wreaths, and raising their arms with Solidarity's "V" sign in silhouette against the dusk of Warsaw's skyline.