Algeria celebrates the tenth anniversary of its Independence on Monday, July 3, with traditional parades and festivities recalling seven years of bitter fighting against French troops and the end of 132 years of colonial rule.
GTV City of Oran
GTV Crowd celebrating Independence Day (6 shots)
LV French security forces chase LFN rioters through streets, as petrol bomb explodes (3 shots)
SV Injured rioters huddle in doorway
SV Security police kick in door
SV PAN..De Gaulle greets children in eastern Algerian village
CU Banner "Vive de Gaulle"
SLV De Gaulle surrounded by supporters
SV Potter reading "Algeroises, Algerois" and "OAS" painted on wall (2 shots)
SV's wreckage in Algiers after 200 bombs exploded in one day (4 shots)
SV INTERIOR PAN..deputies seated at inauguration of ??? National A???
LV Fernet Abbas addressing deputies (2 shots)
SV Deputies listening
LV Algerian flag PAN down to Ferhat Abbas
SV Ben Bella onto rostrum to take presidential oath
SV Onlookers watch
SV Ben Bella taking oath
GV Tanks at Victory Parade in Nov 1964
SV Boumedienne through streets in jeep
SV Ben Bella and Boumedienne watching parade (2 shots)
SV Boumedienne walks to ribbon and cuts it for opening ceremony of International Trade Fair
GV Soviet pavilion
SV Boumedienne meets Soviet
GV French pavilion
SV Boumedienne greeters officials
SV Boumedienne and party enter Czechoslovakian pavilion (2 shots)
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Background: Algeria celebrates the tenth anniversary of its Independence on Monday, July 3, with traditional parades and festivities recalling seven years of bitter fighting against French troops and the end of 132 years of colonial rule.
Today, Algeria is deeply involved in an ambitious development plan designed to boost industry and agriculture. But the road to normalisation has been long and turbulent -- emerging from widespread discontent on November I, 1954, in the form of an armed rebellion led by the Muslim Front de Liberation Nationals (F.L.N.) against French rule.
The resultant loss of life, caused mainly by FLN-engineered bomb explosions, led to severe French repression of the Muslim population. Despite the setbacks, however, the struggle continued relentlessly until June, 1958, when General de Gaulle took office and shortly afterwards issued his call for a "peace of the brave" in Algeria.
De Gaulle also offered negotiations to the FLN, which, by August 1958, had set up a provisional government headed by Ferhat Abbas, and included Ben Bella and other FLN leaders then interned in France.
The negotiations barely got off the ground. And the war continued, with particularly heavy fighting in early 1959. The French forces were forced to re-organise and finally succeeded in driving back the rebels on most fronts By 1960, it looked as if the rebellion was being overcome.
But the terrorist activities resumed with even greater impetus. Helmete???iot police chased Muslim demonstrators through the streets. Hand to hand ???ttlea were fought with security forces. And on one day alone, no less than 200 bombs rocked the country, littering wreckage across the streets of the cities and causing a sharp rise in the death toll.
In this turbulent atmosphere, de Gaulle announced his intention to hold a referendum on the origination of the government in Algeria -- pending self-determination. He paved the way by visiting the country in December, 1960.
The referendum was greeted, however, by mass abstention: it was clearly useless to continue without the FLN, so in February 1961, fresh approaches were made through the President of Tunisia and secret talks in Switzerland -- ultimately resulting in the Evian cease fire agreement of March 1962.
In July, 1962, another referendum resulted in a 91 per cent vote in favour of self-determination, and two days later, on July 3, General de Gaulle proclaimed Algeria's independence.
Algeria's first National Assembly was inaugurated in the September, and Ben Bella was voted into office as the nation's first Prime Minister. Ben Bella introduced a certain measure of internal stability to the country as well as an improvement in relations with mistier countries. There also followed a program of large scale agrarian reform, with the expropriation of large estates and a definite policy of nationalisation.
In September, 1963, Ben Bella became Algeria's first President. But it was a position he was destined to hold for less than two years. For in a swift and bloodless coup in June, 1965, Ben Bella was deposed by the "Council of the Revolution" headed by Colonel Houari Boumedienne, the Commander of the Army who had been appointed First Deputy Prime Minister and Minster of Defence in 1963. Ben Bella was arrested and charged with high treason, allegedly for attempting to eliminate the army and its supporters from political power.
Boumedienne formally assumed the Presidency on July 5, 1965, and under him, the country continued its policy of non-alignment in international relations and ???trengthened its ties with the socialist camp.
In 1966, Boumedienne announced the nationalisation of eleven foreign-owned mines and the property of absentee French owners. This led to considerable opposition and an abortive assassination attempt.
By 1968, the government's position began to strengthen. The following year, the government published an ambitious four-year development plan based on full utilisation of natural resources in gas, oil and minerals. It also envisaged investment at the rate of some 500 million sterling a year -- about 50 per cent of it earmarked for basic industry and 10 per cent for agriculture.
When the plan is completed next year, Algeria is expected to produce some 450,000 million tons of steel, five million tons of cement, 75 million tons of oil and 6,500 cubic meters of natural gas. Meanwhile, the government is maintaining its policy of "Algerinaisation", and about 80 per cent of all industrial enterprises are now under state control.
SYNOPSIS: Throughout Algeria, people will be celebrating the tenth anniversary of the nation's Independence on July third...with traditional parades and festivities. Today, the country is at peace. But the road to self-rule was a long and turbulent one... with seven years of bitter fighting against French security forces. But for the Algerians, it was all worth it. For it was a struggle that ended more than one-hundred-and-thirty years of colonial rule...
The armed rebellion erupted in nineteen-fifty-four and was led by the Muslim National liberation Front, or F.L.N. As terrorism swept the country, a provisional government was set up. General de Gaulle offered to negotiate. But the talks came to nothing. And by nineteen-fifty-nine, the fighting was as fierce as ever. But a year later, French forces re-organised -- and it looked as if the uprising might be crushed. General as Gaulle visited the country to pave the way for as referendum on the reorganisation of the government. But even as he toured the country, the violence continued. Nearly one-hundred people were killed in two days during the visit. And three months later, in a single day, two-hundred bombs were explode in Algiers by the secret army organisation O.A.S.
By July, nineteen-sixty-two, the battle was won. Algeria's Independence was proclaimed by General de Gaulle on July the third -- just two days after ANOTHER referendum had resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of self-rule. The country's first National Assembly was inaugurated two months later. And Ben Bella, an F.L.N. leader who'd been interned in France, was voted into office as the nation's first Prime Minister. Then, in September, nineteen-sixty-three, Ben Bella took the oath as President.
Ben Bella was destined to hold the post for only a short time. For in nineteen-sixty-five, the troops he reviewed at a victory parade a year earlier, supported a wife and bloodless coup led by their Commander-in-Chief, Colonel Boumedienne... the man mainly responsible for Ben Bella's triumphant return to Algiers -- and who'd been appointed deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence.
Colonel Boumedienne formally assumed the Presidency in July, nineteen-sixty-five. Under him, the country strengthened its ties with the socialist camp and embarked on an ambitious programmed of development. That programme is now feeding some five-hundred-million pounds a year into the economy -- about half of it into industry. And, for Algeria, that 's the mark of progress made in the first ten years of a young nation.