SYNOPSIS: Dark clouds and desolation were typical conditions of many European countries after six years of World War Two.
GV. Countryside and black clouds.
LV. Ditto in the region of the Odra River.
TOP V. PAN. Ruins of Warsaw.
STV.PAN. Ruins of Wroclaw.
LV. Collapsed bridge at Gdansk.
GV. Ruins of Gdansk.
LV. Wrecked factory with chimney still standing.
SV. Showing shell holes in chimney.
LV. Wreckage in harbour of Gdansk.
STV. Wrecked ship in harbour.
SV. Wrecked railway coach in harbour.
SV. Wrecked railway engine.
LV. Wreckage and destroyed bridge.
GV. Destroyed houses in Gorzow.
NEARER V. Ditto
CU. Cross ruins in BG.
GV. Man in striped camp prisoners' clothes walking through ruins.
GV. Countryside scene at Odra.
SV. Polish soldiers ploughing field.
LV. Line of Polish soldiers ploughing field.
SV. Germans leaving Poland getting on to train.
CU. Inscription "British Mission".
SV. British officer checking as Germans get on train.
LV. Train moves off with Germans aboard.
LV. Men working repairing track, train passing in BG.
STV. Train coming into station.
SV. Polish citizens with luggage on station platform.
SV. Polish man loading bicycle on roof of train coach.
GV. Train leaves station with Polish citizens hanging on steps of train etc.
SV. Men riding on roof of train.
TRAVEL SHOT. Ditto.
SV. Sheep and pigs in wagon.
SV. Family of settlers in wagon, of train.
CU. Man lights cigarette.
CU. Woman travelling in train wagon.
SCU. Woman and child travelling.
SV. People looking out of train window.
SHOT FROM TRAIN. Passing destroyed wagon factory at Wroclaw.
GV.PAN.DOWN.INT. Of stripped factory.
SCU. Man repairing machinery.
CU.PAN UP. Men working on insulators.
TRAVEL SHOT. Train passing over River Odra.
SV. People looking out of train window.
LV.PAN. Students removing wreckage from the Wroclaw University.
SV. Settlers examining soil.
LV. Settlers passing on road in horse wagons.
LV. People handing bricks up ladder for reconstruction of house.
SCU. Bricks handed through window.
LV. House being built.
LV. A woman slaking lime.
CU. Older man sawing wood.
LV. Men reconstructing a smithery.
ANGLE SHOT. Smoking chimneys.
GV. Coal mine in Silesia.
STV. Coal being loaded onto barge.
CU. Happy Captain of ship.
TOP V.PAN. Along tug, pulling coal barges on River Odra.
GV. Coal barges passing on River Odra.
CU. Young member of crew on tug.
CU. Another happy young member.
GV. Port of Szczecin.
TOP V. Coal trucks being unloaded
CU. Coal being loaded into ship.
STV. Coal trucks being unloaded.
SV. Coal being loaded into ships.
LV. Chrobry Ramparts in Szczecin.
CU. Sculpture - one of the Piast Kings.
SV.PAN. Sculptures of Piast Kings.
CU. Documents proving the Polish origin of Brzeg from the year 1608.
SCU. Magnifying glass revealing inscriptions on document.
SCU.PAN. Of documents.
LV. German cemetery.
CU. Tombstone - inscription in German with Polish names.
STV. River Odra being deepened.
CU. Machine at work deepening river.
LV.PAN. Odra River dam.
TOP V. Workers at Gdansk shipyard.
SV. Young workers looking at plans.
LV. Finished ship (coal ship) on shipway.
SV. Coal ship being christened.
SV. People sitting in garden of cafe.
NEARER V. Ditto.
CU. Man seated at table in cafe garden.
CU. Another man seated at table.
LV. Schoolchildren walk out from kindergarten.
CU. Children's faces looking skywards.
SV. Watchman playing bugle on tower in Zielona Gora.
LV.PAN. From tower to market square.
SV.PAN. Bachus rides on wine barrel.
SV. Plump man rides by rubbing stomach.
SV. Men ride by drinking from small flagon.
CU. Couple looking on, and applauding.
GV. Polish champagne from barrel given to sailor to drink.
SCU. Sailor drinking champagne.
CU. Girl in costume drinking champagne.
CU. Burning flame.
PAN DOWN Cathedral in Olaztyn.
SV. Cardinal Wyszynski out of car surrounded by people and children.
CU. Cardinal Wyszynski.
TOP V.INT. Cathedral during consecration of new bishop.
SV. A new bishop being consecrated.
LV. Farmhouse of new settler.
SCU. Farmer sharpening scythe.
ANGLE SHOT. Another farmer sharpening scythe.
SV. Fruit being picked, on settlers farm.
GV. Corn being harvested.
CU. Corn being loaded onto farm cart.
LV. Farm cart loaded with corn cloves away from camera.
SV. Hovering birds.
TOP V. People walking in street, in the Vilno region.
LV. Country village in mist.
SV. Tree and misty countryside.
GV. Misty landscape and sunset.
Script is copyright Reuters Limited. All rights reserved
Background: SYNOPSIS: Dark clouds and desolation were typical conditions of many European countries after six years of World War Two. In the wake of a particularly savage transgressor, this was Poland.
1945, peace came again to Europe, and the inhabitants of European cities looked around at the destruction and devastation of the war's bombing.
But for the citizens of Stettin, Breslau, Danzig, Gorzow, and Beuthen, all cities in the 'Polish Corridor' to the immediate east of the line of the Oder and Neisse, this 'look around' was coupled with the question - what is to become of the land we live on.
Still wearing military uniform Polish soldiers reversed the maxim to 'Guns into Ploughshares' and prepared for their greatest battle...for existence.
As in their wartime struggle to rid themselves of the Nasi yoke, so in their peacetime resettlement the Poles were assisted by Britain. Here a British mission supervises expatriation of German settlers.
As compensation for Russian territorial claims to Eastern Poland, certain territories, populated by German settlers, were given to Polish administration. Farmers, mainly from the Polish territories at the River Bug which she had ceded to Russia, moved in to 'being again'.
For nearly a thousand years the ownership of the 100,000 square kms of land to the east of the Oder Niesse, has been in dispute. Pre 15th century German colonisation was defeated by a resurgent Poland as the Mongols invaded Muscovy and relieved the pressure on Poland's Eastern borders. But a weakened 17th century Poland was unable to resist the territorial demands of Russia Prussia and Austria, until Napoleon, at the request of active Polish emigrees in Paris in 1807, founded the great Dukedom of Warsaw. Came another carving of territory in 1815 when the Vienna Congress handed the Kingdom of Poland to Russia; Galicia, West Prussia, and Poznan to Prussia and Austria.
Poland stayed divided in one way or another until in 1918 when Pilsudski reformed the divided elements into a Republic of Poland, and (by the Treaty of Versailles) gained almost the whole of West Prussia as a corridor leading to the Baltic. In 1920 Pilsudski further distinguished his military career by vanquishing the Red Army at Warsaw and (by the Treaty of Riga) obtained White Russia and Wolhynia.
Plebiscites held in this 'corridor' territory were disappointing particularly in upper Silesia as most voters wished to remain under the administrative rule of a richer, more industrialised Germany, to which they were also tied by linguistic and cultural bonds. But despite the results the border was fixed in favour of Poland, sharing parts of the territory with Czechoslovakia, and the foundation for 'The minority problem' was laid.
Pilsudski, hero of the first world war, and the queasy peace that followed, over-rod the protest of the minorities in the 1930's, set up a dictatorship then a government, and laid down a constitution in 1935. Meanwhile he signed pacts - with France and Russia in 1932, Germany in 1934. But the minorities in Poland became more and more vocal, and their cries were attractive to Adolf Hitler in nearby Germany, seeking a pretext to go to war.
1939 the Polish government resisted in vain Germany's request to allow German troops to cross her territory on the way to Russia. She also resisted similar Russian demands - thus prevented Britain going to her aid until Hitler marched. The German Russian conflagration soon died into treaty-locked friendship while Poland was sliced to their requirements.
The Corridor became German again. Russia annexed Ukraine and Byclo-Russia, put in troops. Then Germany invaded Russia. Diplomatic relations were established between the Polish Government in exile in London and Russia, severed when Russia found the mass graves at Katyn, nr Smolensk. Under the aegis of Moscow the National Liberation. Committee was set up in Poland. When the Polish Resistance workers rose in the Autumn of 1944 (with the aid from British sources) against the occupying Germans, Russia did nothing to help, and in 1945 (Jan) a provisional government well seeded with members of the Liberation Committee, recognised Soviet claims to east Poland.
Virtually suppressed during Nazi occupation religious Poland was once again free to worship as she chose. Leader of Polish religious resistance was Cardinal Wyszynski..many times imprisoned by his tormentors.
In the Potsdam agreement final fixation of the German Polish borders was reserved until a Peace treaty between the Allies and the Axis had been signed, but Russia unilaterally granted to Poland the 'right' to administer the territories to the East of the Oder Neisse Line.
In October 1949 the East German Government described the Oder Neisse as a 'peace frontier', and concluded (July 1950) a Treaty between the German Democratic Republic and the Republic of Poland' which recognized this line as a final and irrevocable 'peace and friendship' frontier. Federal Germany, and the West declared this agreement contrary to international law and therefore illegal, but by then the Germans had moved out, and the Poles had moved in.