• Short Summary

    VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN
    (REAL NAME ULYANOV) WAS BORN ONE HUNDRED ULYANOVSK -- ON THE BANKS OF THE VOLGA
    RIVER.

  • Description

    VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN
    (REAL NAME ULYANOV) WAS BORN ONE HUNDRED ULYANOVSK -- ON THE BANKS OF THE VOLGA
    RIVER. HIS FATHER, ILYA NIKOLAEVICH ULYANOV, WAS A SCHOOLTEACHER WHO ROSE TO THE
    POSITION OF DIRECTOR OF SCHOOLS FOR THE WHOLE SIMBIRSK PROVINCE. HIS MOTHER WAS
    A DOCTOR'S DAUGHTER.

    VLADIMIR WAS THE SECOND SON. HIS ELDER BROTHER ALEXANDER WAS A CLEVER YOUTH WHO
    CONDUCTED CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS AT HOME AND LATER BECAME A ZOOLOGY STUDENT AT
    ST. PETERSBURG. IN MARCH 1887, ALEXANDER WAS ARRESTED IN ST. PETERSBURG FOR HIS
    PART IN A BOMB PLOT TO KILL THE CZAR. IN MAY HE WAS HANGED. VLADIMIR WAS THEN
    17.

    REFUSED ADMISSION TO ST. PETERSBURG, HE ENTERED KAZAN UNIVERSITY TO STUDY LAW.

    IN DECEMBER, THE SAME YEAR, HE WAS EXPELLED FROM THE UNIVERSITY -- AND FOR A
    TIME KAZAN ITSELF -- FOR TAKING PART IN A STUDENT GATHERING. IT WAS IN KAZAN
    THAT LENIN STARTED READING MARX. WORRIED AT HIS READING AND MARXIST FRIENDS, HIS
    MOTHER TOOK HIM OFF TO HER FAMILY ESTATE. BUT LENIN CONTINUED TO READ AND TALK
    TO THE PEASANTS.

    EVENTUALLY HE WAS ADMITTED TO ST. PETERSBURG UNIVERSITY AS AN EXTERNAL STUDENT
    AND GAINED HIS LAW DEGREE IN 1891. BY THE TIME HE MOVED TO ST. PETERSBURG IN
    1893, LENIN WAS DEVOTED TO THE LIFE OF A MARXIST REVOLUTIONARY. HE JOINED
    UNDERGROUND GROUPS WORKING IN THE FACTORIES OF ST. PETERSBURG AND WROTE HIS
    FIRST LEAFLETS WHICH WERE TO INSPIRE THE YOUNG LEFT. AMONG THESE HE MET A YOUNG,
    SERIOUS GIRL NAMED NADEZHDA KRUPSKAYA. IN 1898 HE WAS CAUGHT SMUGGLING ILLEGAL
    LITERATURE INTO THE COUNTRY AND EXILED TO SIBERIA. NADEZHDA FOLLOWED HIM AND
    THEY WERE MARRIED IN THE REMOTE SETTLEMENT OF SHUSHENSKOYE.

    AT THE END OF HIS EXILE IN 1900, LENIN WENT ABROAD AND FOR ALMOST 17 YEARS THE
    LENINS LIVED IN A SERIES OF ROOMS THROUGHOUT EUROPE, UNDER A VARIETY OF NAMES.

    LENIN SPENT MOST OF HIS TIME IN THE LIBRARIES, MAPPING OUT HIS NEXT SPEECH,
    WHILE NADEZHDA SAT AT HOME -- THE CENTRE OF ORGANISATIONAL WORK.

    THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905 FELL SHORT OF LENIN'S EXPECTATIONS. IT FAILED TO
    OFFER HIM THE OPPORTUNITY FOR GIVING EFFECT TO HIS SCHEME FORA REVOLUTION IN
    RUSSIA. HE ARRIVED IN ST. PETERSBURG ABOUT NOVEMBER 20, BUT IT WAS TROTSKY WHO
    DOMINATED THE GREAT REVOLUTIONARY ASSEMBLY OF WORKERS DELEGATES CALLED THE
    "SOVIET" UNTIL THE END OF THE UNSUCCESSFUL REVOLUTION. LENIN RETURNED TO
    VOLUNTARY EXILE IN EUROPE.

    WITH THE COMING OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR IN 1914, LENIN TREATED AS A BETRAYAL OF
    INTERNATIONAL SOCIALISM THE READINESS OF THE VARIOUS SOCIALIST PARTIES TO MAKE A
    TRUCE WITH THEIR OWN BOUGEOISTE IN THE INTERESTS OF NATIONAL DEFENCE. FOR RUSSIA
    HE CONTINUED TO PREACH IMMEDIATE REVOLUTION, EVEN AT THE RISK OF DEFEAT BY
    GERMANY.

    WHEN THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION BROKE OUT IN 1917, LENIN WAS IN SWITZERLAND. UNABLE
    TO RETURN TO RUSSIA WITHOUT CROSSING ENEMY TERRITORY, HE AVAILED HIMSELF OF
    FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE GERMANS FOR TRAVEL ACROSS GERMANY IN A SEALED TRAIN
    TO THE BALTIC. AFTER PASSING THROUGH SWEDEN AND FINLAND, HE ARRIVED IN PETROGRAD
    ON APRIL 16, 1917. ON ARRIVAL HE FOUND ALL, THE CONDITIONS FOR REVOLUTION THAT
    WERE LACKING IN 1905.

    WHAT HE WAS ROPING FOR WAS A MASS SEIZURE OF LAND BY THE PEASANTRY, REGARDLESS
    OF ANY LAW. THIS HE WAS HOPING, WOULD SHAKE THE FABRIC OF THE RUSSIAN STATE
    SUFFICIENTLY FOR HIM TO SEIZE POWER...AND RETAIN IT.

    IT WAS THEN LENIN CAME UP WITH THE IDEA OF A SOVIET CONSTITUTION - A
    CONSTITUTION BASED ON SEIZURES BY MOBS INSTEAD OF AWAITING REFORM LAWS PASSED BY
    SOME CENTRAL AUTHORITY. AT THE SAME TIME HE CHANGED HIS SLOGAN FROM "A
    REVOLUTIONARY-DEMOCRATIC DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT AND THE PEASANTRY" TO
    "THE DICTATORSHIP OF THE PROLETARIAT." THIS CHANGE AMAZED HIS FOLLOWERS, BUT
    THIS ONLY PROVED THEIR INABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THAT UNDER HIS CONTROL THE TWO
    TYPES OF DICTATORSHIP WERE TO PROVE IDENTICAL. SEIZURE OF POWER IN THE STATE WAS
    HIS AVOWED AIM, UNDER ONE SLOGAN OR ANOTHER.

    AFTER THE DISTURBANCES AT THE BEGINNING OF JULY, 1917, THE PROVISIONAL RUSSIAN
    GOVERNMENT ORDERED LENIN'S ARREST AND HE WENT INTO HIDING. FROM HERE HE
    CONTINUED TO WRITE AND EVENTUALLY GOAD HIS PARTY INTO IMMEDIATE ARMED UPRISING.

    THE GOVERNMENT OF KERENSKY WAS OVERTHROWN AND LENIN EMERGED FROM HIDING TO
    BECOME CHAIRMAN OF THE NEW SOVIET GOVERNMENT.

    LENIN FIRMLY BELIEVED THAT ONLY FORCE COLD PRODUCE SERIOUS SOCIAL CHANGE. HE
    ALWAYS DEFINED DICTATORSHIP IN THE SENSE OF POWER BASED NEITHER ON LAW NOR ON
    ELECTIONS BUT ON DIRECTLY APPLIED VIOLENCE.

    IN THE BEGINNING THE WHOLE VENTURE OF THE REVOLUTION WAS REGARDED BY LENIN AS
    SOMETHING TEMPORARY -- TO LAST ONLY UNTIL THE SOCIALIST REVOLUTION IN THE WEST
    SHOULD RELIEVE MANKIND OF ANY CONSTITUTIONAL PROBLEMS. TO LENIN THE ONLY
    JUSTIFICATION FOR HIS PARTY'S DOMINATION OVER THE MASSES WAS THAT THE REGIME WAS
    TRANSITIONAL AFTER WHICH THE WHOLE PROBLEM WAS EXPECTED TO DISAPPEAR.

    SYMPTOMS OF HARDENING OF THE CEREBRAL ARTERIES AND THE EFFECTS OF WOUNDS
    SUSTAINED WHEN HE WAS SHOT AT IN 1918, BEGAN TO APPEAR IN LENIN AT THE END OF
    1921. ON MAY 26, 1922, HE HAD HIS FIRST STROKE. ON DECEMBER 16 HE HAD A SECOND
    STROKE AND WAS LEFT PARALYSED IN THE RIGHT ARM AND LEG.

    AT 6.50PM ON JANUARY 21, 1924, LENIN DIED AT GORKI, NEAR MOSCOW.

  • Tags

  • Data

    Film ID:
    VLVA7PU1NND2C8FXGQWREL3KV8035
    Media URN:
    VLVA7PU1NND2C8FXGQWREL3KV8035
    Group:
    Reuters - Source to be Verified
    Archive:
    Reuters
    Issue Date:
    07/04/1970
    Sound:
    Unknown
    HD Format:
    Available on request
    Stock:
    Black & White
    Duration:
    00:07:14:00
    Time in/Out:
    /
    Canister:
    N/A

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