Nicolas Ceausescu, Rumania's Communist Party Leader and President, has for more than diose years walked the tightrope between tough home rule and a broad-minded approach to foreign policy.
CU Ceausescu speaking at conference
CUs Ditto presented with flowers by public & drinking from bottle
CV Steel plate coming out of blast furnace
GV Earthquake damage (2 shots)
CU Nazi soldiers moving rubble
CU People carrying coffin
CU King Carol of Rumania crossing himself
CU Prince Michael at attention on parade
GV Steel-helmeted Rumanian stoops march past
GV Delegates at 1965 Rumanian party Congress
MV Ceausescu talking to delegates
GV Bridge across Danube
MV President Tito meets Ceausescu at airport, crowd welcome & motorcade
MV De Gaulle down aircraft steps & greeted
GV Warsaw Pact conference 1968 at Sofia
CU Herr Walter Ulbricht signing agreement
SV Soviet delegation Brezhnev, Kosygin, Gromyko signing pact
MV Warsaw Pact tanks in country (3 shots)
CU Pro-Dubcek sign on Prague wall
CU's anti-Soviet petitions being signed and counted
CU Rumanian tenth party congress sign
MV's Ceausescu going to poll and voting (2 shots)
GV Crowd in Bucharest main square supporting Ceausescu
MV Ceausescu speaking after endorsement as party chief
GV Oil rigg
GV Oil refinery
MV & CU peasants in fields working
CN PAN..bread on street to girl
MV Bullock cart through village
BCU Sun-glass lens shows reflection of girls walking on beach
MV Tourists on beach
MV, CU & LV Ceausescu meets Mickey Mouse in Disneyland
MV Ceausescu receives flowers from children in Hanoi
CU Vietnamese girls in audience applauding Ceausescu
CU Ceausescu and wife greeted by Mao Tse-tung on arrival in Peking
CU Sign ROMANIA
CV Ceausescu on dais waves to crowd at anniversary parade
CU & LV People and children waving flowers and on parade
CU's neon lights of clubs and bars (3 shots)
CU Woman clapping to music inside nightclub
CV Scantily-clad dancers
MV & LV Ceausescu dancing with ring of Rumanian folk dancers
CU Warsaw Pact officers watching military manoeuvres
MV armoured vehicles
MV Peasant woman staff with pails on each end
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Background: Nicolas Ceausescu, Rumania's Communist Party Leader and President, has for more than diose years walked the tightrope between tough home rule and a broad-minded approach to foreign policy.
Within his country he is a popular figure - having won almost an unanimous mandate to continue his Presidency in 1969. He has drafted a generation of able young men to gradually take over from the old Communist guard - which is slowly departing. Leading a team of technocrats and administrators, he has managed to eliminate potential political opponents and has rehabilitated a victims of the Stalinist purges.
His distinctive style aborad has made him one of the few men in the world who can claim to have - simultaneously - good relations with North Vietnam and the United States, both East and West Germany, Yugoslavia as well as Albania, and Israel as well as the Arabs.
In autumn 1969, he became the first Warsaw Pact leader to play host to an American President and the following March he visited the White House to pay a return call to President Nixon.
The Soviet Union has never been very happy about Rumania's independence within Eastern Europe, but until recently has reportedly be prepared to live with it. But President Ceausescu's tour of the Far East in June has precipitated tension between Rumania and her powerful neighbour, who share border of several hundred miles.
In June, the President's stops included North Korea, North Vietnam - and, more significantly Mao Tse-Tung's Chinese People's Republic. On his return home, he issued a directive to party activities calling for a sterner adhesion to Marxist ideals. Bourgeois entertainment was to be replaced by Rumania's cultural heritage. He called for a new drive in revolutionary propaganda to serve the single concept of a Communist education.
The Soviet Union - already disturbed by Ceausescu's approval of ping-pong diplomacy-also holds memories of his outspoken attack on the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. They fear Chinese influence in the Balkans.
But Ceausescu has firmly resisted recent Soviet pressure to allow Warsaw Pact troops across Rumanian soil en route to manoeuvres in Bulgaria. He has rejected all demands to hold exercises on Rumanian soil. He added further fuel to the tension by inviting a Chinese delegation and other pro-Chinese leaders to the celebrations at Rumania's 27th anniversary in August this year.
SYNOPSIS: Nicolas Ceausescu, Romania's President and Communist Party leader has spent his whole political life on a knife-edge. Born into a peasant family he went to work in Bucharests' factories at the age of 11. His ideas were.....
......forged in the hungry 1930's. In 1933 the 15-year-old Ceausescu was arrested for joining strikes and demonstrations. By 1940 -
a year which saw Nazi soldiers, wartime confusion
and the autocratic monarchy of King Carol and his son Michael -
he held high rank in Communist youth.
In 1965 he was elected Communist Party Chief....at 47, the youngest leader in the Eastern European "Bloc". Championing Rumanian sovereignty in her own affairs......
...he looked across the Danube to another independent thinker - Yugoslavia's President Tito. In 1966, he invited President Tito to Bucharest. Rumania's foreign links were being strengthened.
And in 1968 General de Gaulle became the first French President ever to visit the country.
But that year, Ceausescu made his first official stand against Rumania's Warsaw Pact partners. The Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia in August was, he proclaimed "a big mistake." And while the people of Prague protested, Ceausescu alerted Rumania's reservists.
Yet Ceausescu's position seemed secure enough. A year later he was endorsed as Party Leader by an almost unanimous public mandate. But he made it clear that Rumania would remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact Defence organisation.
He opened new markets for Rumania's rich oil deposits.....
...while stimulating his country's tradition-minded peasantry into greater and quicker production without destroying the fabric of rural life.
Tourism thrived under the President's "open doors" policy to both West and East.
And Ceausescu himself became something of a celebrated tourist. In March 1970 he visited Disneyland in California and later President Nixon at the White House in Washington in August 1969. Ceausescu was the first Warsaw Pact leader ever to play host to an American President.
But his tour of the Far East appears to have made a more profound impact on his political thought. At Hanoi in June this year.....
... and in Mao Tse-tung's Chinese People's Republic, President Ceausescu was impressed by the militant brand of communism. His visit to peking was the first by a Warsaw Pact leader since the Sing-Soviet split.
In August 1971, Ceausescu invited a Chinese delegation to Rumania's Independence day parade. In July he launched a nationwide campaign which has been interpreted as a culture revolution.
Western style entertainment would be one of the "negative phenomena" reduced in an attempt to curb the spreading of the "beourgeoisi way of life", he announced. In its place, Rumanian patriotism.
But relations with the Soviet Union are becoming critical. It is reported that Ceausescu rejected Soviet requests to allow their troops to cross Rumanian soil to conduct Warsaw Pact manoeuvres. By approving of ping-pong diplomacy and refusing to denounce China, Ceausescu treads a tightrope. And at more than an other time in his six year rule, Rumanian autonomy is in the balance.