• Short Summary

    THE FIRST UNITED STATES RESUMED NUCLEAR TESTS ORDERED BY PRESIDENT KENNEDY SEPT 5 ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO TAKE PLACE UNDERGROUND AT THE NEVADA TESTING RANGE WHERE AMERICA EXPLODED FIVE BELOW-THE-SURFACE NUCLEAR DEVICES -- SHOWN HERE IN THIS FILM RECENTLY RELEASED BY THE U.

  • Description

    1.
    GV NUCLEAR TESTING GROUND, NEVADA DESERT.
    0.07

    2.
    GV "BLANCA" DEVICE BEING EXPLODED UNDERGROUND, NUCLEAR EXPLOSION COLUMN.
    0.20

    3.
    GV NUCLEAR COLUMN.
    0.25

    4.
    GV NUCLEAR EXPLOSION AREA.
    0.32

    5.
    GV "TEAPOT" NUCLEAR DEVICE EXPLODED UNDERGROUND.
    0.49

    6.
    SV PAN... NUCLEAR EXPLOSION AREA.
    0.55

    7.
    LV "TEAPOT" EXPLOSION.
    1.00

    8.
    GTV CRATER.
    1.07


    -WHIP PAN-


    9.
    GV "BUSTER JANGLE U" EXPLOSION.
    1.15

    10.
    GTV NUCLEAR CLOUD.
    1.20

    11.
    SV DITTO.
    1.23

    12.
    STV CRATER.
    1.27

    13.
    GTV TWO CRATERS, LEFT BY "TEAPOT" AND "BUSTER JANGLE U", SIDE BY SIDE.
    1.31


    (COMMENTATOR SPEAKS OVER FILM)



    (CUE IN COMMENTATOR ON "RAINIER" INTRODUCTION):



    THE EXPLOSION IN THIS SERIES, VARIED TO THE GREATEST SCALED DEPTH, WAS THE "RAINIER" EVENT WHICH TOOK PLACE IN SEPTEMBER, 1957. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE DETONATION OCCURRED AT THE END OF 2,000-FT LONG TUNNEL DRIVEN INTO THE SIDE OF A MESA AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE. THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE IS CHARACTERISED BY A 250-FT BRICK LAYER OF CAP ROCK, COMPOSED OF WELDED TUFA. THE CAP ROCK IS UNDERLAID BY 17,000-FT OF BEDDED TUFAS. BENEATH THE WHOLE STRUCTURE IS A BASEMENT CONSISTING OF A THICK LAYER OF CRYSTALLINE DOLOMITE. THE SHOCK ROOM WAS LOCATED AT A VERTICAL DEPTH OF 900-FT IN THE BEDDED TUFAS. THE DISTANCE TO THE NEAREST POINT OF THE SURFACE WAS 790-FT. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE TUNNEL WAS TERMINATED IN A SPIRAL DESIGNED TO BE SELF-SEALING. THE NUCLEAR DEVICE WAS PLACED IN A CHAMBER 6 X 6 X 7-FT AND WAS SEALED WITH A SANDBAG PLUG 13-FT IN LENGTH. RADIATING FROM THE ZERO POINT, WERE SEVERAL INSTRUMENTED HOLES TO PROVIDE FOR VARIOUS TECHNICAL MEASUREMENTS. (CUE IN MOUNTAIN): THE FIRST EVIDENCE OF THE EXPLOSION WAS THE APPEARANCE OF THE SHOCK REACHING THE SIDE OF THE MOUNTAIN, FOLLOWED BY ROCK SLIDES, CAUSED BY LOOSENING OF THE WELDED TUFA CAP ROCK WHICH WAS JOINTED. THE ROCKS LOOSENED BY THE EXPLOSION, KICKED UP CLOUDS OF DUST AS THEY ROLLED DOWN THE MOUNTAINSIDE. AFTER THE EXPLOSION, THERE WAS VERY LITTLE EVIDENCE OF ANY DISTURBANCE, EXCEPT FOR THESE SMALL SLIDES. THERE WAS NO DETECTABLE RELEASE OF RADIOACTIVITY TO THE SURFACE OR INTO THE TUNNEL BEYOND THE COLLAPSE DISTANCE, WHICH WAS 200-FT.



    (CUE IN "BLANCA" INTRODUCTION):



    THE "BLANCA" EVENT, BURIED TO A SCALE DEPTH OF BURST LESS THAN THE "RAINIER" EVENT, TOOK PLACE IN OCTOBER 1958. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE GEOLOGICAL FORMATION WAS THE SAME AS FOR THE "RAINIER" EVENT. THE CENTRE OF THE EXPLOSION WAS IN THE SAME BEDDED-TOUGH STRUCTURE, AS WAS THE "RAINIER" DETONATION. THE DISTANCE TO THE NEAREST POINT OF THE SURFACE, WAS 835-FT. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE DETONATION OCCURRED AT THE END OF A 600-FT STRAIGHT SECTION, ANGLED FROM THE MAIN TUNNEL. THE SHOCK CHAMBER HAD A CROSS SECTION OF 9 X 9-FT AND WAS ABOUT 20-FT LONG. THE TUNNEL WAS STEMMED WITH THREE SANDBAG PLUGS. THE FIRST PLUG BEING 40-FT IN LENGTH, THE SECOND 20-FT IN LENGTH, AND THE THIRD PLUG, 10-FT IN LENGTH (CUE IN MOUNTAIN): ON EXPLOSION, THERE WAS A HOT CABLE HEAVING OF A SECTION OF THE MOUNTAIN ABOUT 1,500-FT IN DIAMETER. INITIALLY, SMALL CLOUDS OF DUST WERE EJECTED ON THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE HEAVE ZONE, AND LARGE ROCK SLIDES DEVELOPED ALONG THE MESA RIM FOR A DISTANCE OF 2 MILES. AFTER ABOUT 15 SECONDS, A PLUME OF DUST WAS EJECTED DIRECTLY OVER THE POINT OF DETONATION. THE PLUME RESULTED FROM THE PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE OF THE INITIAL CAVITY FORMED BY THE EXPLOSION. WHEN THE COLLAPSED REGION REACHED THE SURFACE, SOME OF THE GASSES FROM THE DETONATION, WERE RELEASED. THE TOTAL AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY DEPOSITED ON THE GROUND SURFACE, AMOUNTED TO 3/10TH TO 5/10TH PER CENT OF THE TOTAL RADIOACTIVITY PRODUCED IN THE EXPLOSION. A VIEW FROM THE TOP OF THE MESA SHOWS SEVERAL LARGE FISSURES ACROSS THE ROAD. THE ZONE SLIPPED PART WAY DOWN THE SLOPE AND LEFT AN ESCARPMENT ABOUT 70-FT HIGH. INSPECTION OF THE VENTING AREA, SHOWED THE FISSURE FORMED ON THE SURFACE BY THE COLLAPSING CAVITY. ALSO, A MAJOR SECTION OF THE MESA EDGE COLLAPSED AND MOVED DOWN THE SLOPE. AT THE PRESENT TIME, STUDIES HAVE NOT BEEN COMPLETED TO INDICATE THE QUANTITY OR THE NATURE OF THE BROKEN ROCK, BUT SEVERAL MILLION TONS WERE CERTAINLY PRODUCED.



    (CUE IN "NEPTUNE" INTRODUCTION):



    THE "NEPTUNE" EVENT WAS A SMALL EXPLOSION AT A RELATIVELY SHALLOW SCALE DEPTH, AND TOOK PLACE IN THE SAME GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AS THE PRIOR TWO SHOCKS. (CUE IN DIAGRAM); THE DISTANCE FROM THE SHOCK ROOM, TO THE NEAREST POINT OF THE SURFACE, WAS 99-FT. THE TUNNEL CONFIGURATION WAS APPROXIMATELY THE SAME AS FOR THE "RAINIER" EVENT. THE SHOCK ROOM WAS ABOUT 15-FT ON THE SIDE, AND WAS STEMMED BY TWO SHORT SANDBAG PLUGS. THE MAIN TUNNEL HAD SEVERAL DRIFTS RADIATING FROM IT, OF WHICH THIS WAS ONE. (CUE IN MOUNTAIN): THIS LONG VIEW OF THE EXPLOSION, SHOWS THAT LARGE AMOUNTS OF ROCK WERE MOVED. THE TOTAL VOLUME OF THE CRATER PRODUCED WAS ABOUT 30,000 CUBIC YARDS. THIS IS A CLOSER VIEW OF THE SAME EXPLOSION. THE AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY THAT ESCAPED AND WAS DEPOSITED IN THE SURROUNDING AREA AMOUNTED TO SEVERAL TIMES MORE PERCENTAGE-WISE THAN FROM THE "BLANCA" EXPLOSION. IN OTHER WORDS, THE TOTAL DEPOSIT ACTIVITY, WAS ONE TO TWO PER CENT OF THE TOTAL AMOUNT. THE CRATER FORMED BY THE "NEPTUNE" EXPLOSION WAS 150-FT WIDE, BY 200-FT LONG, WITH A MAXIMUM DEPTH OF 40-FT. THE CRATER AND LIP CONTAINED A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF LARGE ROCK, THE LARGEST ONE WAS SEVERAL FEET IN DIAMETER. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THIS IS A SCHEMATIC CROSS SECTION OF THE RESULTING "NEPTUNE" CRATER, SHOWING THE LOCATION OF THE CENTRE OF THE EXPLOSION. THE DEVICE WAS LOCATED 99-FT FROM THE CLOSEST GROUND SURFACE. THE RESULTING APPARENT CRATER HAD AN AVERAGE RADIUS OF 90-FT, AND HAD A MAXIMUM DEPTH OF 40-FT. THE CRATER IS CHARACTERISED BY A LARGE VOLUME OF BROKEN ROCK, BETWEEN THE APPARENT CRATER SURFACE, AND DEVICE POSITION.



    (CUE IN "TEAPOT" INTRODUCTION):



    IN MARCH 1955, AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE, DURING OPERATION "TEAPOT", AN UNDERGROUND EXPLOSION WAS MADE SPECIFICALLY TO PRODUCE A CRATER. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE DEVICE WAS LOCATED 67-FT BELOW THE SURFACE AT THE BOTTOM OF A 10-FT DIAMETER HOLE. A 30-INCH HOLE WAS PROVIDED FOR PERSONNEL ACCESS, PRIOR TO THE EXPLOSION. THE DEVICE WAS PACKED CLOSELY WITH SANDBAG PLUGS, AND BOTH HOLES WERE FILLED WITH LOOSE ALLUVIUM MATERIAL BEFORE DETONATION. (CUE IN EXPLOSION): INITIALLY, ON DETONATION, A BRIEF FLASH WAS OBSERVED, FOLLOWED BY A MASSIVE MOVEMENT OF EARTH. A FACE SURGE OF TEST WAS FORMED, WHICH SPREAD TO ABOUT ONE MILE RADIUS, AND CARRIED A LARGE AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. SURVEYS OF THE TOTAL RADIOACTIVITY AFTER THE EXPLOSION, REVEALED THAT ALMOST ALL THE ACTIVITY WAS BLOWN OUT OF THE CRATER, AND WAS DEPOSITED ON THE SURFACE WITHIN TEN MILES. THE CRATER FORMED BY THE EXPLOSION WAS ABOUT 90-FT DEEP, AND 290-FT IN DIAMETER.



    (CUE IN "BUSTER JANGLE U" INTRODUCTION):



    IN NOVEMBER OF 1951, THE FIRST UNDERGROUND CRATERING EXPLOSION WAS DETONATED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE. THE MEDIUM WAS THE SAME FOR THE "TEAPOT" EVENT, OF LIGHTLY CEMENTED, ALLUVIUL VALLEY FILL. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE NUCLEAR DEVICE WAS PLACED IN A CONCRETE LINED ROOM, 10 X 10 X 8-FT HIGH, AND IT WAS SEALED WITH A SANDBAG PLUG FROM THE TOP OF THE ROOM TO THE SURFACE OF THE GROUND. THE DEVICE WAS BURIED AT A DEPTH OF 17-FT BELOW THE SURFACE OF THE GROUND. (CUE IN EXPLOSION): AS IN THE CASE OF THE DEEPER CRATERING SHOCK, A BASE SURGE WAS FORMED, WHICH SPREAD RADIALLY TO A DISTANCE OF APPROXIMATELY ONE MILE. THE DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVITY WAS SIMILAR TO THAT IN THE "TEAPOT" EVENT. A DENSE CLOUD OF DUST ROSE TO A HEIGHT OF ABOUT 6,000-FT ABOVE THE FLOOR OF THE DESERT. THE RESULTING DEGREE, IN THIS EXPLOSION, WAS A FINE POWDER WHICH CONTRASTED WITH THE "NEPTUNE" EXPLOSION, IN WHICH LARGE ROCKS WERE EJECTED. (CUE IN AIR VIEW CRATERS): IT IS INSTRUCTIVE TO COMPARE THE CRATERS FORMED BY THE "BUSTER JANGLE U" AND THE "TEAPOT S" EXPLOSIONS. (CUE IN DIAGRAM): THE "BUSTER JANGLE" CRATER, WAS SMALLER HAVING A RADIUS OF 130-FT, AT A DEPTH OF 53-FT, THE RADIUS OF THE "S" CRATER, WAS 146-FT, WITH A DEPTH OF 90-FT. THE HEIGHT OF THE LIP WAS ABOUT 18-FT. (CUE IN MOUNTAIN): THE GENERAL RESULTS OF ALL OF THESE SHOCKS HAVE GIVEN US A SEQUENCE OF EXPLOSIONS, AT VARIOUS SCALE DEPTHS, FROM WHICH CAN BE PREDICTED, AT LEAST ROUGHLY. THE DEPTHS THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR COMPLETE CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, AS WELL AS THE FRACTION OF RADIOACTIVITY THAT IS RELEASED TO THE SURFACE FOR SHALLOW EXPLOSIONS. IN ADDITION, BASIC DATA HAS BEEN ACQUIRED TO PERMIT THE ESTIMATING OF CRATER CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AT VARIOUS DEPTHS.




    Initials PGR/O/MMcG/PB IM/O/MGT/LW


    EDITORS: ORIGINAL SOUND TRACK HAS BEEN DUPED AS A GUIDE

    Script is copyright Reuters Limited. All rights reserved

    Background: THE FIRST UNITED STATES RESUMED NUCLEAR TESTS ORDERED BY PRESIDENT KENNEDY SEPT 5 ARE ALMOST CERTAIN TO TAKE PLACE UNDERGROUND AT THE NEVADA TESTING RANGE WHERE AMERICA EXPLODED FIVE BELOW-THE-SURFACE NUCLEAR DEVICES -- SHOWN HERE IN THIS FILM RECENTLY RELEASED BY THE U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION -- BEFORE THE UNOFFICIAL TEST BAN IN 1958.

    BIGGEST EXPLOSION OF THIS SERIES WAS 20 KILOTONS, SAME SIZE AS THE BOMB THAT DEVASTATED HIROSHIMA, DETONATED ON OCTOBER 30, 1958 -- SHORTLY BEFORE THE U.S. HALTED ALL NUCLEAR TESTING.

    THE NEW TESTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE SMALL EXPLOSIONS -- RELEASING NO FALL-OUT -- INVOLVING WARHEADS FOR IMPROVED AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, TORPEDOES AND WEAPONS FOR INFANTRYMEN.

    NO OFFICIAL DATE HAS BEEN SET FOR THE FIRST RESUMED TEST, BUT WASHINGTON SOURCES SAY IT COULD TAKE PLACE LATE THIS MONTH.

  • Tags

  • Data

    Film ID:
    VLVA3HG5NT900Z9W8TGK3F5ZFOVI6
    Media URN:
    VLVA3HG5NT900Z9W8TGK3F5ZFOVI6
    Group:
    Reuters - Source to be Verified
    Archive:
    Reuters
    Issue Date:
    08/09/1961
    Sound:
    Unknown
    HD Format:
    Available on request
    Stock:
    Colour
    Duration:
    00:11:36:00
    Time in/Out:
    /
    Canister:
    N/A

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