India's reaction to the civil war in East Pakistan has led to increased tension in recent months; another climax to the years of political conflict since the independent state of Pakistan was created in 1947.
P 16447 GV Troops on quayside
CU Mountbatten on bridge of ship
GV Troops on deck
SV Lord and Lady Mountbatten looking over rail
P 16609 SV INT Aircraft troops
Prime Minister SV Sheikh Abdullah arrives to address crowd
GV Rebels seated
CU Abdullah speaking
SV Rebels listening
SV Armoured car moving forward
CU Officer looking through field glasses
LV Troops moving forward
AV Smoke from burning village
LV & CU's Bodies of Invaders being searched by troops (3 shots)
SV & CU'S Bandits being searched
1965 SV Shastri descending from aircraft and greeted by Ayub Khan (3 shots)
SV INT Commonwealth conference reception
SV Shastri and Ayub Khan talking PAN TO Other Commonwealth PM's
SV Home chatting
SV & GV Artillery firing
GV & SV Centurian tanks
GV Indian troops break cover and advance
SV Commander looking through field glasses
SCU PAN Tank passes
SV PAN U Thant enters building and greeted by Ayub Khan
SV U Thant with Shastri
SCU & CU United Nations observers with arm badges
SV Moscow Airport sign
SV Bhutto greeted
SCU Podgorny and Kosygin
SV & CU Ayub Khan and President Johnson seated
GV Parliament building in Delhi
GVs Ganges water conference in session (3 shots)
CU Officer with field glasses
LV Pakistani troops at border
LV Burning building
GV Building damaged by shells
Initials BB/1538 TA/PMW/SAN-BB/1729
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Background: India's reaction to the civil war in East Pakistan has led to increased tension in recent months; another climax to the years of political conflict since the independent state of Pakistan was created in 1947.
Since 1947, Kashmir and the Rann of Kutch have--with internal problems--caused fighting between the two countries. The newest cause is the border migration of East Pakistani refugees.
This film, from VISNEWS library, shows the history of the conflict between India and Pakistan and the attempts that have been made to bring the countries politically closer despite their differences.
SYNOPSIS: When Britain handed over independence to India in 1947, Pakistan was created a sovereign, independent state - causing political and religious differences
The first flare-up was in Kashmir and the religious differences in the area prompted an uprising.
The partition of India was followed by a mass migration of refugees in both directions. Hindus crossed into India and the Moslems preferred Pakistan. The Kashmir state acceded to India and immediately Indian troops were moved in to control rebels. Although the dispute was relatively minor, it was the start of years of contention over Kashmir and the firing point for further religious battles.
Mr Shastri, the Indian Prime Minister, first met President Ayub Khan in 1964. They met again later at the Commonwealth Prime Minister's conference in London, where informal talks helped to settle the Rann of Kutch crisis with a final cease-fire agreement. They had still not settled the Kashmir dispute.
In August 1965, Kashmir flared again. India had accused Pakistan of sending infiltrators into the area to stir up revolt and had moved forces to occupy Pakistani territory to halt insurgents. President Ayub Khan said Pakistan was doing no more than supporting Kashmir feelings, and his forces struck at Indian supply lines.
This time U Thant stepped in, meeting Ayub Khan in Pakistan for talks and then Mr. Shastri in Delhi. He told the United Nations security council to secure a ceasefire and a force of two hundred observers was stationed at the frontier to see that both Indian and Pakistani forces withdrew to their own territories. But even at the intervention of the United Nations, both sides continued to accuse each other of cease-fire violations.
In 1966, both sides sent delegations to the Soviet Union and later signed the Tashkent declaration pledging to improve relations, but the Kashmir dispute remained unsettled.
President Ayub Khan travelled to the United States and told the United Nations that he was willing to settle disputes with India, but not over Kashmir. In 1968 both sides met over sharing the River Ganges. They agreed on minor points and relations improved even though the subject of the meeting was never really signed.
Then, earlier this year, civil war in East Pakistan led to tension on the eastern borders. So far there has been no direct confrontation but both sides are conscious of the volatile situation.